Ada Tutorials

Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object - oriented high - level computer programming language. It was originally designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull under contract to the United States Department of Defense during 1977–1983 to supersede the hundreds of programming languages then used by the DOD. Ada addresses some of the same tasks as C or C + +, but Ada is strongly - typed ( even for integer - range ), and compilers are validated for reliability in mission - critical applications, such as avionics software. Ada was named after Ada Lovelace, who is often credited with being the first computer programmer.


Features

Ada was originally targeted at embedded and real - time systems. The Ada 95 revision, designed by S. Tucker Taft of Intermetrics between 1992 and 1995, improved support for systems, numerical, financial, and object - oriented programming ( OOP ).

Notable features of Ada include: strong typing, modularity mechanisms ( packages ), run - time checking, parallel processing ( tasks ), exception handling, and generics. Ada 95 added support for object - oriented programming, including dynamic dispatch.

Ada supports run - time checks in order to protect against access to unallocated memory, buffer overflow errors, off by one errors, array access errors, and other avoidable bugs. These checks incumbency be disabled in the pastime of runtime efficiency, but can often be compiled efficiently. It also includes facilities to help program verification. For these reasons, Ada is widely used in critical systems, where any anomaly might lead to very serious consequences, i. e., accidental extinction or injury. Examples of systems where Ada is used include avionics, weapons ( including thermonuclear weapons ), and spacecraft.

Ada also supports a great number of compile - month checks to use avoid bugs that would not be detectable until whisk - time in some other languages or would require explicit checks to be added to the source code.

Ada's dynamic memory management is high - level and type - clear-cut, requiring certain instantiation of the Unchecked_Deallocation package to explicitly free allocated memory. The description does not desire any particular implementation. Though the semantics of the language allow automatic garbage battery of inaccessible objects, most implementations do not support it. Ada does support a limited construction of region - based storage management. Invalid accesses can always be detected at run time ( unless of course the check is turned off ) and sometimes at compile time.

The syntax of Ada is simple, consistent and gracious. It minimizes choices of ways to perform basic operations, and prefers English keywords ( eg " OR " ) to symbols ( eg. " " ). Ada uses the basic mathematical hieroglyphics ( i. e.: " + ", " - ", " * " and " / " ) for basic mathematical operations but avoids using other symbols. Code blocks are delimited by using words such as " declare ", " begin " and " end ". It also enforces that each conditional tally be closed. For example, " if touch > 0 then y: = 0; " is not valid and must be closed with " end if "; i. e., " if x > 0 then y: = 0; end if; " The rationale is that code for a complex system must be readable by reviewers and maintainers. Reviewers may include domain experts who are not highly software literate. Creed for complex systems is typically maintained for many years, by programmers other than the original author. It answerability be argued that these language design principles apply to most software projects, and most phases of software development, however when applied to complex, safety critical projects, benefits in correctness, reliability, and maintainability take precedence over ( arguable ) costs in initial development.

Unlike most ISO standards, the Ada language definition ( avowed as the Ada Reference Manual or ARM, or sometimes the Language Reference Manual or LRM ) is free content. Thus, it is a common reference for Ada programmers, not due programmers implementing Ada compilers. Apart from the proclaim manual, there is also an extensive rationale document which explains the language design and the use of various language constructs. This document is also widely used by programmers. When the language was revised, a uncontaminated rationale document was written.



Ada Tutorials Links

ActionScript tutorial
URL: http://www.macromedia.com/support/flash/action_scripts/actionscript_tutorial/
The tutorial is designed for Flash users who are ActionScript beginners but who want to work towards advanced abilities. You should already be familiar with basic actions and know how to assign them in the Actions panel.

ActionScript Toolbox
URL: http://flash-creations.com/
Flash-Creations.com is the new home of former Actionscript Toolbox content.

kirupa.com - ActionScript Guide
URL: http://www.kirupa.com/developer/actionscript/index.htm
An introduction to the basics in this ActionScript tutorial.

kirupa.com - Advanced ActionScript Guide
URL: http://www.kirupa.com/developer/actionscript/advanced.htm
An introduction to object-oriented programming in Flash, using arrays and various other topics are covered by the tutorials on this site.

CBT Cafe - ActionScript Tutorials
URL: http://www.cbtcafe.com/flash/actionscript.html
There are a number of Flash tutorials including a section of ActionScript tutorials at this site.

ActionScript Tutorials
URL: http://www.actionscript.org/tutorials.shtml
There are over a hundred ActionScript tutorials at this site divided into beginning, intermediate and advanced levels.

ActionScript Dictionary
URL: http://www.macromedia.com/support/flash/action_scripts_dict.html
This is a searchable ActionScript dictionary at the Macromedia Flash Support Center.

Flash: ActionScript Programming
URL: http://www.image.ufl.edu/help/flash/programming/
These pages will provide an introduction to some concepts of programming and some basics of how to use the Flash ActionScript programming tools

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