Law School Admission Test (LAST) Questions Answers Section-1

Law School Admission Test (LAST) Questions Answers Section-1

1. The passage suggests that during the 1980s researchers found meteorite impact a convincing explanation for the extinction of dinosaurs, in part because

(A) earlier theories had failed to account for the
gradual extinction of many ocean species at the end of the Cretaceous period
(B) geologists had, up until that time,
underestimated the amount of carbon dioxide that would be released during an episode of explosive volcanism
*(C) a meteorite could have served as a source of
the iridium found in a layer of clay deposited at the end of the Cretaceous period
(D) no theory relying on purely geological
processes had, up until that time, explained the cause of the precipitous drop in sea level that occurred at the end of the Cretaceous period
(E) the impact of a large meteorite could have
resulted in the release of enough carbon dioxide to cause global climatic change



2. According to the passage, the lower regions of the Earth's mantle are characterized by
*(A) a composition similar to that of meteorites
(B) the absence of elements found in rocks on the
Earth's crust
(C) a greater stability than that of the upper
regions
(D) the presence of large amounts of carbon
dioxide
(E) a uniformly lower density than that of the
upper regions

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which one of the following was true of the lava that erupted in India at the end of the Cretaceous period?
(A) It contained less carbon dioxide than did the
meteorites that were striking the Earth's surface during that period.
(B) It was more dense than the molten rock
located just above the Earth's core.
(C) It released enough iridium hexafluoride into
the atmosphere to change the Earth's climate dramatically.
*(D) It was richer in iridium than rocks usually
found on the Earth's surface.
(E) It was richer in iridium than were the
meteorites that were striking the Earth's surface during that period.

4. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with doing which one of the following?
*(A) describing three theories and explaining why
the latest of these appears to be the best of the three
(B) attacking the assumptions inherent in theories
that until the 1980s had been largely accepted by geologists
(C) outlining the inadequacies of three different
explanations of the same phenomenon
(D) providing concrete examples in support of the
more general assertion that theories must often be revised in light of new evidence
(E) citing evidence that appears to confirm the
skepticism of geologists regarding a view held prior to the 1980s

5. The author implies that if the theory described in the third paragraph is true, which one of the following would have been true of iridium in the atmosphere at the end of the Cretaceous period?
(A) Its level of concentration in the Earth's
atmosphere would have been high due to a slow but steady increase in the atmospheric iridium that began in the early Cretaceous period.
(B) Its concentration in the Earth's atmosphere
would have increased due to the dramatic decrease in sea level that occurred during the Cretaceous period.
(C) It would have been directly responsible for the
extinction of many ocean species.
*(D) It would have been more uniformly dispersed
than iridium whose source had been the impact of a meteorite on the Earth's surface.
(E) It would have been more uniformly dispersed
than iridium released into the atmosphere as a result of normal geological processes that occur on Earth.

6. The passage supports which one of the following claims about the volcanic-eruption theory?
(A) It does not rely on assumptions concerning the
temperature of molten rock at the lowest part of the Earth's mantle.
*(B) It may explain what caused the gradual fall in
sea level that occurred for hundreds of thousands of years prior to the more sudden disappearance of the dinosaurs.
(C) It bases its explanation on the occurrence of
periods of increased volcanic activity similar to those shown to have caused earlier mass extinctions.
(D) It may explain the relative scarcity of iridium
in rocks on the Earth's surface, compared to its abundance in meteorites.
(E) It accounts for the relatively uneven
distribution of iridium in the layer of clay deposited at the end of the Cretaceous period.

7. Which one of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the theory described in the last paragraph of the passage?
(A) Fragments of meteorites that have struck the
Earth are examined and found to have only minuscule amounts of iridium hexafluoride trapped inside of them.
*(B) Most diapir eruptions in the geological history
of the Earth have been similar in size to the one that occurred in India at the end of the Cretaceous period and have not been succeeded by periods of climatic change.
(C) There have been several periods in the
geological history of the Earth, before and after the Cretaceous period, during which large numbers of marine species have perished.
(D) The frequency with which meteorites struck
the Earth was higher at the end of the Cretaceous period than at the beginning of the period.
(E) Marine species tend to be much more
vulnerable to extinction when exposed to a dramatic and relatively sudden change in sea level than when they are exposed to a gradual change in sea level similar to the one that preceded the extinction of the dinosaurs

8. Which one of the following best describes the main point of the passage?
(A) It is only since the early 1970s that folklore
studies have begun to recognize women as important bearers of folklore.
(B) A careful analysis of the repertoires of women
folk performers has led to a new discovery with important implications for future folklore studies.
(C) Recent studies of women folk performers have
focused primarily on the problems of repertoire analysis to the exclusion of a discussion of the culture within which the folklore was developed.
(D) The emphasis in folklore studies has shifted
from a focus on the life and the cultural background of the folk performers themselves to a broader understanding of the role folklore plays in a culture.
*(E) A change in the focus of folklore studies has
led to increased interest in women folk performers and to a new understanding of the importance of the context in which folklore is produced.

9. The author of the passage refers to The Dynamics of Folklore primarily in order to
(A) support the idea that it is too soon to tell
whether or not folklorists are giving greater attention to women's folklore
(B) refute Weigle and Farrer's contention that
folklorists prefer to collect folklore from men rather than from women
(C) support the assertion that scholarship devoted
to women folk performers tends to focus primarily on repertoire
(D) present an example of the new emphasis in
folklore studies on the performer rather than on the folklore
*(E) suggest that there are some signs that women
folk performers are gaining increased critical attention in the field of folklore

10. The focus of which one of the following books would most clearly reflect the current interest of the folklorists mentioned in the last paragraph?
(A) an anthology of tales and songs collected
exclusively from women in different cultures
(B) a compilation of tales and songs from both
men and women covering a great variety of traditional and nontraditional topics
*(C) a study of the purpose and meaning of a tale
or song for the men and women in a particular culture
(D) an analysis of one particular tale or song that
documents changes in the text of the folklore over a period of time
(E) a comparison of the creative process of
performers who transmit folklore with that of artists who transmit their ideas in writing

11. According to the passage, which one of the following changes has occurred in the field of folklore since the early 1970s?
(A) increased recognition of the similar ways in
which men and women use folklore
*(B) increased recognition of folk performers as
creative individuals
(C) increased emphasis on the need for repertoire
analysis
(D) less emphasis on the relationship between
cultural influences and folklore
(E) less emphasis on the individual performers and
more emphasis on the meaning of folklore to a culture

12. It can be inferred from the passage that early folklorists assumed that which one of the following was true?
*(A) The people who transmitted the folklore did
not play a creative role in the development of that folklore.
(B) The people who transmitted the folklore were
not consciously aware of the way in which they creatively shaped that folklore.
(C) The text of a song or tale did not change as the
folklore was transmitted from one generation to another.
(D) Women were not involved in transmitting
folklore except for songs or tales dealing with a few traditional topics.
(E) The meaning of a piece of folklore could differ
depending on whether the tale or song was transmitted by a man or by a woman.


13. Based on the information in the passage, which one of the following is most closely analogous to the type of folklore studies produced before the early 1970s?
*(A) An anthropologist studies the implements
currently used by an isolated culture, but does not investigate how the people of that culture designed and used those implements.
(B) A manufacturer hires a consultant to
determine how existing equipment in a plant might be modified to improve efficiency, but does not ask employees for their suggestions on how to improve efficiency.
(C) A historian studies different types of
documents dealing with a particular historical event, but decides not to review newspaper accounts written by journalists who lived through that event.
(D) An archaeologist studies the artifacts of an
ancient culture to reconstruct the life-style of that culture, but does not actually visit the site where those artifacts were unearthed.
(E) An architect designs a private home for a
client, but ignores many of the client's suggestions concerning minor details about the final design of the home.

14. The author of the passage uses the term "context" (line 50) to refer to
(A) a holistic assessment of a piece of folklore
rather than a critical analysis of its parts
(B) a study that examines a piece of folklore in
light of earlier interpretations provided by other folklorists
(C) the parts of a piece of folklore that can shed
light on the meaning of the entire piece
*(D) the environment and circumstances in which a
particular piece of folklore is used
(E) the location in which the story line of a piece
of folklore is set

15. The author's attitude toward Roger Abraham's book can best be described as one of
(A) wholehearted approval
*(B) qualified admiration
(C) uneasy ambivalence
(D) extreme skepticism
(E) trenchant criticism

16. The main idea of the passage is that
(A) civic humanism, in any of its manifestations,
cannot entirely explain eighteenth-century political discourse
(B) eighteenth-century political texts are less likely
to reflect a single vocabulary than to combine several vocabularies
*(C) Pocock's linguistic approach, though not
applicable to all eighteenth-century political texts, provides a useful model for historians of political theory
(D) Pocock has more successfully accounted for
the nature of political thought in eighteenth-century England than in the eighteenth-century United States
(E) Pocock's notion of the importance of language
in political texts is a logical extension of the insights of historians of literature

17. According to the passage, Pocock most clearly associates the use of a vocabulary of economic progress with
(A) Jefferson
(B) Federalists
*(C) English Whigs
(D) English Tories
(E) rural English landowners

18. The author's attitude toward Pocock is best revealed by which of the following pairs of words?
(A) "fruitful" (line 2) and "cant" (line 39)
(B) "sharp" (line 16) and "elitist" (line 46)
(C) "naively" (line 17) and "controversial"
(line 41)
*(D) "fertile" (line 40) and "applaud" (line 60)
(E) "simply" (line 44) and "importance" (line 55)

19. The passage suggests that one of the "assumptions of the 1950s" (line 17) regarding the meaning of a political text was that this meaning
(A) could be established using an approach similar
to that used by literary historians
*(B) could be definitively established without
reference to the text's historical background
(C) could be closely read in several different ways
depending on one's philosophic approach
(D) was constrained by certain linguistic
preconceptions held by the text's author
(E) could be expressed most clearly by an analytic
philosopher who had studied its historical context

20. The author of the passage would most likely agree that which one of the following is a weakness found in Pocock's work?
(A) the use of the term "language" to describe the
expressive features of several diverse kinds of discourse
(B) the overemphatic denigration of the role of the
analytic philosopher in establishing the meaning of a political, or indeed any, text
(C) the emphasis on the overriding importance of
civic humanism in eighteenth-century English political thought
*(D) the insistence on a single linguistic dichotomy
to account for political thought in eighteenth-century England and the United States
(E) the assignment of certain vocabularies to
particular parties in eighteenth-century England without taking note of how these vocabularies overlapped

21. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
*(A) A description of a thesis is offered, specific
cases are considered, and an evaluation is given.
(B) A thesis is brought forward, the thesis is
qualified, and evidence that calls the qualification into question is stated.
(C) A hypothesis is described, examples that
suggest it is incorrect are summarized, and supporting examples are offered.
(D) A series of evaluations are given, concrete
reasons are put forward, and a future direction for research is suggested.
(E) Comparisons and contrasts are made, some
categories of evaluation are suggested, and a framework for applying these categories is implied.

22. According to the passage, Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act differs from Executive Order 11,246 in that Title VII
(A) monitors employers to ensure minority
representation
(B) assesses the work forces of government
contractors
(C) eliminates discriminatory disparities in wages
(D) focuses on determining minority
representation in government
*(E) governs hiring practices in a wider variety of
workplaces

23. Which one of the following statements about schooling in the United States during the mid-1940s can be inferred from the passage?
(A) School expenditures decreased for white
schools.
*(B) The teachers in white schools had more time
to cover material during a school year than did teachers in black schools.
(C) The basic curriculum of white schools was
similar to the curriculum at black schools.
(D) White schools did not change substantially in
quality.
(E) Although the salaries of teachers in black
schools increased, they did not keep pace with the salaries of teachers in white schools.

24. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) explain why an argument about black
economic progress is incomplete
(B) describe the impact of education on black
economic progress
*(C) refute an argument about the factors
influencing black economic progress
(D) describe black economic progress before and
after the 1960s
(E) clarify the current view about the factors
influencing black economic progress

25. Which one of the following best states the position of proponents of the "continuous change" hypothesis regarding the relationship between law and racial discrimination?
(A) Individuals cannot be forced by legal means to
behave in nondiscriminatory ways.
(B) Discriminatory practices in education have
been effectively altered by legal means.
*(C) Legislation alone has had little effect on
racially discriminatory behavior.
(D) Legislation is necessary, but not sufficient, to
achieve changes in racial attitudes.
(E) Legislation can only exacerbate conflicts about
racially discriminatory behavior.

26.The author concedes that "correlating federal intervention and the acceleration of black economic progress might be incorrect" (lines 58-60) primarily in order to
*(A) strengthen the overall argument by
anticipating an objection
(B) introduce another factor that may have
influenced black economic progress
(C) concede a point to the continuity theorists
(D) change the overall argument in light of the
views of the continuity theorists
(E) introduce a discussion about the impact of
federal intervention on discrimination

27. The "continuous change" hypothesis, as it is presented in the passage, can best be applied to which one of the following situations?
(A) Homes are found for many low-income
families because the government funds a project to build subsidized housing in an economically depressed area.
(B) A depressed economy does not cause the
closing of small businesses in a local community because the government provides special grants to aid these businesses.
(C) Unemployed people are able to obtain jobs
because private contractors receive tax incentives for constructing office buildings in an area with a high unemployment rate.
*(D) A housing shortage is remedied because the
changing state of the economy permits private investors to finance construction in a depressed area.
(E) A community's sanitation needs are met
because neighborhood organizations lobby aggressively for government assistance.

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