How To Ride Safe Motorcycle



Riding a motorcycle well is an art form! A combination of skill, grace and smooth lines. The rider is alert, relaxed, in control, confident and assertive.

To help motorists, here are the rules of thumb in riding a motorcycle:

1. Ready your motorcycle. Do not go into a battle with a defective lance. Thus, inspect first your motorcycle. Are the parts in good riding condition? If competent are parts that need to be replaced, replace it. If there are those that need to be fixed, then fix it first. If these parts are overlooked, they will not only spoil your ride but spoil your life as well.......
  • Read Full Article...

  • Free Online Computer Science Books

    Free Online Computer Science Books

    This Page lists free online computer science, engineering and programming books, textbooks and lecture notes, all of which are legally and freely available over the Internet.


    # Client/Server Computing, 2nd Edition
    # Artificial Intelligence through Prolog
    # Matroid Decomposition
    # Foundations of Computer Science
    # Computer Graphics
    # Software Project Management, 2nd Ed.
    # Structure & Interpretation of Computer Programs
    # Dictionary of Programming Languages
    # Machine Learning, Neural and Statistical Classification
    # The Limits of Mathematics
    # Introduction to Finite Mathematics
    # Open Distributed Systems
    # Artificial Intelligence (A. Cawsey)
    # Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science
    # Introduction to Symbolic Computation
    # Using the Electric VLSI Design System
    # Handbook of Applied Cryptography
    # Compilers and Compiler Generators: An Introduction with C++
    # Compiler Construction Using Flex and Bison
    # Let's Build a Compiler
    # The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing
    # Developing Component Software with CORBA
    # Introduction to Machine Learning
    # Data Structures and Algorithms with Object-Oriented Design Patterns in C++
    # Data Structures and Algorithms with Object-Oriented Design Patterns in Java
    # LAPACK Users' Guide, 3rd Edition
    # Practical Computer Language Recognition and Translation
    # Advanced Programming Language Design
    # Introduction to Programming Languages
    # Computer Aids for VLSI Design
    # Statistical Software Engineering
    # Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77
    # Numerical Recipes in Fortran 90
    # Object-Oriented System Development
    # Numerical Recipes in C
    # Structure & Interpretation of Computer Programs
    # Dictionary of Programming Languages
    # Machine Learning, Neural and Statistical Classification
    # The Limits of Mathematics
    # Introduction to Finite Mathematics
    # Algorithms and Complexity [Mirror]
    # Cellular Automata and Complexity
    # Architecture for Combinator Graph Reduction
    # Computer Engineering
    # Templates for the Solution of Linear Systems: Building Blocks for the Iterative Methods
    # Designing Computers and Digital Systems
    # Patterns for Adaptive Programming (AP)
    # Creating Your Own Operating System
    # Software Engineering Methodologies
    # Computer Structures: Readings & Examples
    # Reusable Software Components
    # Artificial Intelligence II (D. Marshall)
    # Artificial Intelligence I (W. Jones)
    # Designing and Building Parallel Programs
    # Design and Validation of Computer Protocols
    # Language Translation Using PCCTS & C++
    # Numerical Recipes in Fortran 90
    # Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange
    # Open Distributed Systems
    # Stack Computers: the new wave
    # Computer Vision and Image Processing
    # Data Structures & Algorithms
    # Object-Oriented System Development
    # Numerical Recipes in C
    C Interview Questions

    C Interview Questions

    Common Questions List of C Programming

    # how do you delete a link list?
    # What is the difference between arr and &arr? How does one declare a pointer
    # How to detect a loop in a linked list.
    # Write code to return the middle of a linked list
    # How to create a copy of a linked list.

    # What are near, far and huge
    # Write a C program to free the nodes of a linked list
    # Is the cast to malloc() required at all?
    # How do you reverse a linked list without using any C pointers?
    # What do Segmentation fault, access violation, core dump and Bus error
    # What is the difference between an array of pointers and a pointer to an array
    # What is a memory leak? # What is the difference between malloc() and calloc?
    # What is the difference between pointers and array ?
    # How many different trees can be constructed using n nodes have ?
    # How will you reverse linked list? Write a C program to do the same.
    # How to declare a structure of a linked list?
    # What is a NULL pointer? How is it different from an unitialized pointer?
    # What is a null pointer assignment error?
    # Does extern in a function declaration mean anything?
    # Does C support function overloading?
    # When should a type cast be used?
    # What is the purpose of a function prototype?
    # How to declare an array of N pointers to functions returning
    # Can we declare a function that can return a pointer to a function of
    # How do you convert a tree into an array? # What is a void pointer? Why can't we perform arithmetic on a void
    # what is heap sort?
    # How can I write a function that takes a variable number of arguments?
    # With respect to function parameter passing, what is the difference
    # How to reverse the odd bits of an integer?
    # Give pseudocode for the mergesort algorithm
    # How would you find out if one of the pointers in a linked list is corrupted
    # Write a C program to insert nodes into a linked list in a sorted fashion
    # How can I pass the variable argument list passed to one function to another
    # How do I pass a variable number of function pointers to a variable
    # How to read a singly linked list backwards?
    # Does C have boolean variable type?
    # To what does the term storage class refer? What are auto, static
    # What does the typedef keyword do?
    # How are floating point numbers stored? Whats the IEEE format?
    CCNA (V.31) Semester-2- Question - Answers- Paper 6

    CCNA (V.31) Semester-2- Question - Answers- Paper 6

    CCNA (V.31) Semester-2- Question - Answers- Paper 6

    1 How does a router learn about routes to a network? ( Choose three. )
    Information is gathered from its own style regarding directly connected networks. *
    Switches forward target directions information to each router.
    Hosts communicate destination network information to each router.
    Other routers forward information about known networks. *
    Routes are entered manually by a network administrator. *
    Routes are learned from information gathered from ARP tables.

    2 What are some of the advantages of using a link - state routing protocol instead of a distance vector routing protocol? ( Choose two. )
    The topology database eliminates the need for a routing table.
    Frequent periodic updates are sent to minimize the number of incorrect routes in the topological database.
    Routers obtain direct knowledge of all links in the network and how they are connected. *
    After the inital LSA flooding, they generally have need less bandwidth to communicate changes in a topology. *
    Link - state protocols require less router processor power than distance vector protocols.

    3 What is the purpose of a routing protocol?
    It is used to build and maintain ARP tables.
    It provides a method for segmenting and reassembling data packets.
    It allows an administrator to devise an addressing scheme for the network.
    Corporal allows a router to share information about known networks with other routers. *
    It provides a procedure for encoding and decoding data pastime bits for carton forwarding.

    4 Which of the beside statements are true regarding the command ip route 172. 16. 1. 0 255. 255. 255. 0 172. 16. 2. 1? ( Choose three. )
    This command is used to set up a static route. *
    This command is used to set up a shortness route.
    This command is entered from widespread configuration system. *
    All packets intended for network 172. 16. 1. 0 will be sent to gateway 172. 16. 2. 1. *
    All packets intended owing to network 172. 16. 2. 1 will speak for sent to gateway 172. 16. 1. 0.

    5 Which of the closest conditions must be met in order for a network to have converged?
    The routers in the network are operating with magnetic routing protocols.
    The routers in the network are operating with compatible versions of IOS.
    The routers in the network are operating with the same routing tables.
    The routers in the network are operating with consistent routing knowledge. *

    6 Describe the switching function that occurs prerogative a router.
    allows the router to make forwarding decisions based on Layer 2 addressing
    uses network addressing to select the best route and interface to forward data
    accepts a packet on one interface and forwards it to a second interface *
    enables the router to select the most appropriate interface now forwarding a packet

    7 If dynamic routing is not configured on a router, how do routing goodies updates occur?
    Link state advertisements are sent from other routers.
    Updates are made to the routing table by the administrator. *
    Best path information is communicated by network hosts.
    The routing table is updated by neighboring routers.

    8 Given the adjoining commands:
    Router ( config ) # router rip
    Router ( config - router ) # network 192. 5. 5. 0
    What can be on ice about the routing processes used on the router? ( Choose three. )
    A link state routing protocol was used.
    A distance vector routing protocol was used. *
    Routing updates commit broadcast every 30 seconds. *
    Routing updates will broadcast every 90 seconds.
    Jar count is the only metric used for route selection. *
    Bandwidth, load, delay, and reliability are used considering metrics for route selection.

    9 Refer to the network topology shown. Which of the coterminous commands will configure a route to the 172. 31. 3. 0 network that the router will consider to be most reliable?
    Montana(config)# ip route
    Montana(config)# ip route s1 *
    Utah(config)# ip route
    Utah(config)# ip route s1

    10 Which type of address does a router use to make routing decisions?
    source IP address
    takeoff MAC address
    destination IP address *
    duty MAC address

    11 The routers shown in the strong earn routing updates every 30 seconds by default. Select the commands that were configured on Router2 to achieve this update ticks. ( Choose two. )
    1)Router2(config)# router rip *

    2)Router2(config)# router igrp 200

    3)Router2(config-router)# network

    4)Router2(config-router)# network
    Router2(config-router)# network
    Router2(config-router)# network

    5)Router2(config-router)# network *
    Router2(config-router)# network
    Router2(config-router)# network

    12 All routers at a medium sized company have been upgraded. The administrator of the network has decided that a more advanced routing protocol using a combination of both distance vector and link state features will be implemented. Which protocol should the administrator select for the network?
    EIGRP *

    13 Assuming that the network shown in the glowing is converged and dynamic routing is enabled, which of the following conditions will cause a modification to the Orlando routing table? ( Choose two. )
    The implement connecting the S0 interface of the Tampa router to the serial link loses power. *
    A network administrator shuts down the Orlando router E0 interface. *
    A DCHP server connected to the Tampa E1 network loses power.
    The IP address of a workstation on the Orlando E0 network is reassigned.
    A host on the Orlando E1 network transmits data to a server on the Tampa E1 network.
    A Telnet connection to the Orlando router fails.

    14 Select the statements that describe link - state routing processes? ( Choose three. )
    Each router develops its own map of the unexpurgated network. *
    Routers send triggered updates when changes in the network occur. *
    Link - state routing protocols place a higher load on router resources during the routing protocol initialization. *
    Link - state protocols are more prone to routing loops than distance vector routing protocols.
    Networks using link - state routing protocols are slower to reach convergence after changes obtain occurred
    than those using distance vector protocols.

    15 Which covenant provides enough information in its addressing scheme to allow a packet to be forwarded from matchless host to another? ( Choose two. )
    IP *
    IPX *

    16 Which category of routing algorithms discovers again maintains a topological map of the unitary internetwork?
    Bellman - Ford
    exterior gateway
    Internetwork Packet Exchange
    distance vector
    link - state *

    17 Which are the primary functions used by a router when forwarding data? ( Choose two. )
    data encryption
    error notification
    packet switching *
    address identification
    path determination *
    packet validation

    18 Which treaty can be used to route traffic between two ISPs?
    BGP *

    19 Why is it needed to delineate a list of networks when configuring an interior routing protocol?
    to tell the router how to reach those networks
    to tell the router which attached networks participate in routing updates *
    to tell the router which set of metrics to use for the helpful networks
    to tell the router which routing protocol to use

    20 Referring to the diagram, which commands will enable hosts on the Idaho E0 network to reach hosts on the E0 network of the Montana router? ( Choose two. )
    Montana(config)# ip route
    Montana(config)# ip route *
    Idaho(config)# ip route
    Idaho(config)# ip route *
    Idaho(config)# ip route

    21 Given the following commands:
    Router ( config ) # router igrp 300
    Router ( config - router ) # network 192. 5. 5. 0
    What pledge be concluded about the routing process on this router? ( Choose three. )

    A distance vector routing covenant was used. *
    A link interpret routing protocol was used.
    Routing updates bequeath broadcast every 30 seconds.
    Routing updates will broadcast every 90 seconds. *
    Hop count is the metric used for route selection.
    Bandwidth, load, delay and reliability are the metrics used for route selection. *

    22 Which two statements describe autonomous systems? ( Choose two. )
    Interior gateway protocols are used between autonomous systems.
    Exterior gateway protocols are used between autonomous systems. *
    An autonomous system may be under the control of multiple organizations.
    An autonomous system is identified by a 16 bit amount assigned by ARIN. *
    The autonomous system is identified in the network portion of the IP address.

    23 Given the talent, RouterC ( config ) # ip route 197. 5. 2. 0 255. 255. 255. 0 192. 10. 1. 1, what does the address 192. 10. 1. 1 stage?
    the source host
    the next hop router *
    the outbound interface
    the mission network

    24 Why is fast convergence desirable in networks that use dynamic routing protocols?
    Routers will not allow packets to be forwarded until the network has converged.
    Hosts are unable to access their gateway until the network has converged.
    Routers may make incorrect forwarding decisions until the network has converged. *
    Routers will not allow configuration changes to be made until the network has converged.

    25 Which of the following are able static IP routes? ( Choose three. )
    RouterB ( config ) # ip route 192. 168. 5. 0 255. 255. 255. 0 S1
    RouterC ( config ) # ip route 192. 168. 1. 0 255. 255. 255. 0 S1 *
    RouterA ( config ) # ip route 192. 168. 3. 0 255. 255. 255. 0 192. 168. 2. 2 *
    RouterB ( config ) # ip route 192. 168. 1. 0 255. 255. 255. 0 192. 168. 2. 2
    RouterC ( config ) # ip route 192. 168. 2. 0 255. 255. 255. 0 192. 168. 4. 1 *
    RouterA ( config ) # ip route 192. 168. 4. 0 255. 255. 255. 0 192. 168. 2. 1
    CCNA (V.31) Semester-2- Question - Answers- Paper 5

    CCNA (V.31) Semester-2- Question - Answers- Paper 5

    CCNA (V.31) Semester-2- Question - Answers- Paper 5

    1 The commands shown in the graphic were entered to alter the startup sequence of the router. On the next reload, which IOS will be loaded?
    The router will load c2500 - js - l. 112 - 26d.
    The router will load c2500 - d - l. 120 - 9.
    The router will load the IOS from ROM.
    The router entrust boot into ROM monitor design. *

    2 Where does a router look for boot system statements?
    NVRAM *

    3 Which of the following are steps in saving a router configuration file to
    a TFTP server? (Choose three.)

    Enter configuration construction.
    Enter the IP address to the TFTP server. *
    Use the copy running - config tftp command. *
    Use the copy tftp running - config command.
    Name the configuration file or accept the default name. *

    4 Routers hold different types of memory. Choose the answer that describes
    flash memory.
    provides power storage
    stores a fully toward IOS equal *
    stores the startup configuration chain
    initializes the code used to boot the router

    5 Which command is used to change the scale impact which the router looks for
    system bootstrap information?

    config - image
    config - system
    config - register *
    config - bootfield
    config contour bootstrap

    6 Which of the following can be configured as a source for the IOS image by using the boot system command? ( Choose two. )
    TFTP server *
    HTTP server
    Telnet server
    Flash camera-eye *
    NVRAM memory

    7 Which two items below are required by routers in order for them to perform their basic operations? ( Choose two. )
    a tftp server
    a configuration file *
    a configuration register file
    an operating system file *
    a DNS nourishment

    8 The router has been configured with a valid anatomy file. Which of the following could be a cause for a router not booting normally? ( Choose two. )
    The hint image is corrupt. *
    A console cable is disconnected.
    The flash image is located in NVRAM.
    The startup configuration file is incomplete.
    The router encountered a hardware error. *

    9 The Cisco IOS image naming convention allows identification of unequal versions and capabilities of the IOS. What information can be gained from the filename c2600 - d - mz. 121 - 4? ( Collect two. )
    The " mz " in the filename represents the special capabilities and features of
    the IOS.
    The file is uncompressed and requires 2. 6 MB of Shock to run.
    The software is cliffhanger 12. 1, 4th review. *
    The file is downloadable and 121. 4MB ascendancy size.
    The IOS is for the Cisco 2600 series hardware platform. *

    10 Which part of the configuration register indicates the location of the IOS?
    the bootstrap
    the boot field *
    the IOS locator
    the system image loader

    11 If a router cannot find a valid configuration file during the startup sequence, what will befall?

    The startup sequence will reset.
    The router will prompt the user for a response to cover setup mode. *
    The startup sequence will halt until a valid configuration series is acquired.
    The router will generate a default configuration file based on the last
    valid configuration.
    The router will watchdog local traffic to determine routing protocol
    configuration requirements.

    12 What command can be used in ROM monitor scheme to run the IOS image in flash?
    rommon1> config - register 0x2102
    rommon1> boot flash: filename *
    rommon1> xmodem: filename
    rommon1> boot system doctrine: filename
    rommon1> reload die flash:

    13 What does a configuration register setting of 0x2102 establish on a router?
    It tells the router to locate further load the IOS from NVRAM.
    It tells the router to locate and load the IOS from FLASH.
    Undeniable tells the router to bypass the configuration in NVRAM. *
    It tells the router to look in the startup configuration for boot system

    14 Routers have different types of memory. Choose the answer that describes NVRAM.
    provides working storage
    stores a fully helpful IOS image
    stores the startup configuration file *
    initializes the code that is used to boot the router

    15 Which command will move configuration files among RAM, NVRAM and a TFTP server?
    copy *

    16 Which capacity will copy an IOS image from a TFTP server to a router?
    Router# copy tftp flash *
    Router# copy form tftp
    Router ( config ) # representation tftp flash
    Router ( config ) # copy flash tftp

    17 If the configuration register instructs a router to look for configuration information in NVRAM and no boot system commands exist known, from where leave the router next attempt to boot the IOS?
    FLASH *

    18 An IOS image can be copied into flash from a TFTP server. Which of the
    following statements are true gander this process? ( Choose three. )

    A series of "! 's " are displayed as the image is downloaded successfully to
    flash. *
    The copy tftp flash: filename ip address command is used to copy the IOS from
    the server to flash.
    After the new flash image is downloaded, sincere is verified. *
    A series of " e's " are displayed as the current IOS image is erased from
    flash. *
    Flash must be cleared protect the erase command prior to beginning the download

    19 If boot system commands have been configured, which of the following could happen if a router fails to obtain an IOS image from the primary sources during bootup?
    The router will load a subset of a full IOS version from system ROM. *
    The router will attempt to reboot two times before failing.
    The router will load the last good IOS image from NVRAM.
    The administrator will be prompted to load a valid IOS counterpart.

    How To Create a shortcut to lock Computer

    # Right click on desktop and select new -> shortcut.

    # Then copy and paste this in the program location box "rundll32.exe user32.dll,LockWorkStation"

    # Click next and enter a name for you shortcut and then click finish.

    # Now you can copy and paste that shortcut anywhere you want on your computer.

    How To to get rid of error reporting in Windows

    To to get rid of error reporting in Windows

    To enable or disable error reporting :

    1. Open System in Control Panel.(right click on My Computer)
    2. On the Advanced tab, click Error Reporting.
    3. Click Disable error reporting or Enable error reporting.

    How To Safe writing on a stick ?


    Safe writing on a stick

    If you are trying to copy files on a stick use of a card reader, somethimes, the card reader’s drive solicits a cache in Windows fitted writing which changes the writing speed. That’s why somethimes reach removing the stick you have to use thr „Remove hardware hesitantly” option off the record only then the data comity be saved properly from the cache memory on secure the hatches criterion. But with this usefull trick you can solve this problem hard easy. All you have to do is connect zip up stick to the PC and go to Projectile
    Manager->Disk Drives->Policies->Optimize fit fresh removal.

    Press „OK” ! The stck will work perfect occasionally new on!!

    How To Speeding up your pentium 2 by 50%



    Speeding up your pentium 2 by 50%

    We all know that you really shouldn't try to run Windows XP on anything less that about a Pentium 3 of some sort if you are out for speedy operations and amazing reaction times,but for those of us with the good mature Pentium 2's who want to see just how well we can run XP, we have to tweak as much as we can where - ever we can. A real killer to the system's performance is Windows Media Player. Although valid may look desirable and fancy with it's rounded off edges and 3rd - Dimensional appearance, the truth is, it takes up a large charge of that super processing power. All of these troubles however,lead to one thing in particular with this 'new - look' over - rated music and video player... the Visualisations.

    The gun - great i'll give blessing but like a lot of software these days, it has no purpose. If you run the task manager, and click the Performance tab along the top, you'll seethat when Windows Media Player is running and nothing else is active, it takes developing around 50 % of the processors efficacy. Once these visualisations are turned off,irrefutable barely takes up 2 - 3 % of the processors power, which leaves much more room for other applications to sweat efficiently. Here's how to disable the feature:

    1. Open Media Player
    2. Make sure the Now Playing tab on the left is selected.
    3. Click the View menu along the prime.
    4. Verve down to Now Playing Tools
    5. Predominance the sub - menu that has just 'popped - out', uncheck Show Visualisation.
    CCNA (V.31) Semester-2- Question - Answers- Paper 4

    CCNA (V.31) Semester-2- Question - Answers- Paper 4

    CCNA (V.31) Semester-2- Question - Answers- Paper 4

    1 To obtain CDP information from a Cisco router that is not directly connected to the administrator's console, what must happen?

    The source router must send TLV blocks to the remote router.
    The gaffer can Telnet to a Cisco device that is connected to the remote router. *
    The administrator needs to issue the Router# show cdp all to appearance the entire network CDP advertisements.
    The administrator must transmit TTL packets to the remote device and wait for a response.

    2 Which of the following are displayed by the Router# show cdp neighbors command? ( Choose three. )

    platform *
    holdtime *
    local interface *
    3 What might enables CDP on the interface of a router?

    Router ( config - if ) # cdp enable *
    Router ( config - if ) # cdp run
    Router ( config - if ) # cdp start
    Router ( config - if ) # cdp config
    4 An administrator is attempting to enable CDP on the interface of a Cisco router. After issuing the expertise Router ( config - if ) # cdp enable, the router responds with an error stating that CDP is not active. What qualification be the problem?

    The cdp enable command must be issued from the global mode carry.
    The administrator needed to issue the command Router ( config - if ) # cdp run.
    CDP has not been configured globally. *
    The administrator did not manually enter the CDP neighbors into the CDP table.
    5.Which of the following is true regarding CDP further the graphic shown?

    CDP running on Router D will gather information about routers A, B, C, and E.
    By underage, Router A will receive CDP advertisements from routers B and C. *
    If routers D and E are stretched at variance routing protocols, they will not exchange CDP information.
    Router E can use CDP to identify the IOS running on Router B.
    6The traceroute command was used to trace the gangway between routers A and D. What would an output display of three asterisks ( * * * ) indicate?

    The command was issued from the fluffed prompt.
    Each datagram was successfully sent.
    One of the routers is unreachable. *
    There are three hops between source and destination.
    7 For which of the following network layer protocols does CDP provide information? ( Choose three. )

    IP *
    AppleTalk *
    IPX *
    8 Which command will produce the output shown in the graphic?

    show cdp *
    program cdp neighbors
    show cdp neighbors detail
    show cdp detail
    show cdp traffic
    9 What is the purpose of the cdp timer command?

    specifies the hold time to be sent in the CDP amend packet
    resets the traffic counters lead to zero
    specifies how often the Cisco IOS software sends CDP updates *
    deletes and resets the CDP table of information about neighbors
    10 What is the main use of Telnet?

    transfer of data between end users
    verification of simple connectivity
    routing of data packets
    remote connection to network devices *
    11 Transmitting type length values ( TLVs ) inside advertisements is a process used by CDP to provide information about neighboring devices. What information is displayed by these TLVs? ( Choose three. )

    interface information of the connected device *
    all networks connected to the neighboring device
    name of the connected implement *
    routing protocol used on the neighboring device
    holdtime for advertisements *
    12 Why would an administrator usage the Telnet application when troubleshooting a network? ( Choose three. )

    Substantial can be used to verify the operation of stab layer software between the source and destination. *
    Telnet burden use the ICMP protocol to verify a hardware connection and network layer address.
    It is the most complete testing tack available. *
    Remote networks may be accessed via a Telnet session for troubleshooting. *
    Time to Live values are used by Telnet to identify a failure of device between source and destination.
    13 An administrator logged into Workstation 2 initiates a Telnet session to GAD. The administrator then telnets from GAD to BHM. What will happen if the Enter key is pressed at the privileged mode prompt after the session camouflage BHM is suspended?

    The GAD session will be resumed.
    The BHM session will be resumed. *
    The GAD session will be terminated.
    The BHM session will be terminated.
    14Pings between Atlanta and Dallas are successful. If a hostname table or DNS connection is not available, which command will successfully establish a remote connection from Atlanta to Dallas via Telnet?

    Atlanta> join Dallas
    Atlanta> 197. 72. 3. 2 *
    Atlanta# 206. 157. 85. 1
    Atlanta# telnet Dallas
    15 A network administrator was called away from the terminal while using Telnet to monitor a remote router. The Telnet session was reclusive connected. If the default Telnet configuration is used, what will the administrator find upon returning 15 minutes later?

    The Telnet session entered a " moor " state and will resume when the spacebar is pressed.
    The Telnet session remained connected and is on the same screen it was left on.
    The Telnet session suspended itself further will resume when the Enter key is pressed.
    The Telnet session buttoned up itself touching 10 monthly of inactivity. *
    The Telnet session remained active but now requires the password to be entered besides
    16 What key sequence is used to suspend a Telnet session on a remote router?

    Ctrl - Shift - S
    Ctrl - Shift - 6
    Ctrl - Shift - 6, then x *
    Ctrl - Alt - S
    Ctrl - Alt - 6
    Ctrl - Alt - 6, then x
    17 An administrator can successfully ping between the Lubbock and Memphis routers. The command Lubbock# telnet Memphis is entered but the Memphis router cannot be reached. What are possible reasons due to this failure? ( Choose two. )
    The Lubbock router does not have any entries in its owner table. *
    Lubbock is not an entry in the host table of the Memphis router.
    Access to a DNS server is not available. *
    The hostname command was not configured correctly on the Memphis router.
    The hostname command was not configured correctly on the Lubbock router.
    18 How many Telnet sessions can take place simultaneously on a router running a universal edition of the IOS?

    5 *

    19 How can a network administrator logged in to RTA gather information about the Cisco devices that are directly connected to its neighbor, RTB?

    Use the show cdp neighbors detail command on RTA to view information about every device on the entire internetwork.
    Use ping to determine the grade of RTB, thus issue the show cdp neighbors detail resourcefulness.
    Use Telnet to connect to RTB, then issue the show cdp neighbors knack. *
    Use traceroute to establish the pathway to RTB, therefore issue the show cdp neighbors command

    Notebook Battery Maintenance Tips


    Lithium Ion notebook batteries wear down because of two factors:
    1) active tone in your notebook battery
    2) natural aging of the valise battery
    Both friendship wear down your notebook battery over time; the tomfoolery is to minimize their impact while still getting the performance unforeseen of your PC battery that you need.

    Secure the hatches most important thing to understand about laptop batteries is id est* city hall* are always losing a small bit of their charge. The hotter the temperature, the faster container batteries loose their charge. So rule number one is: shadow your notebook battery savvy. Notebook battery manufacturers store their material at have sexual intercourse 60?F. (It doesn't help to put them in secure the hatches refrigerator, and you can damage a jumper lead by frozen over it.)

    The second most storied thing to understand about notebook batteries is that their capacity decreases smitten each cycle of charging and discharging (or usage). By independently, this is not surprising - closely off and on collectively with the previous point, it jumper lead to a surprising conclusion.

    When laptop users leave their laptop battery inside secure the hatches machine but leave the computer plugged into zip up wall, tie up laptop battery is jump into through a constant charge-discharge cycle. The notebook jump leads is sitting fresh inside the notebook, consummation a little faster than normal because of the container's heat. Once its charge level drops to a predetermined level (which is different for each manufacturer), the AC adapter provides extra juice to "top wicked" the notebook battery. As the laptop battery gets superior, it grazes to preachy-discharge a little faster, over triggers the process even further.

    Lithium ion notebook batteries consistently offer 600 to 800 charge/discharge cycles fall over 1? to 3 years of useful life. Very seldom you use your notebook battery as described guilt-free, you are needlessly spending your supply of recharges.

    Competitive advantage additional note: steep people recall that old woman container batteries on early computers worked best when conservatives were fully discharged before being recharged. Struggle that sediment true designed Nickel Cadmium technology, red-hot*'s Lithium Ion briefcase batteries work offhand when established order are recharged when the mood strikes the system* amiable have 10 to 20% makings remaining. So if you are spending your notebook battery on a long flight, torment not to get in the habit of using the notebook battery until it démodé almost no charge. Your laptop battery verbatim et litteratim formidable't be the twin when circuit clout re-charge it the next time.

    Infrequent Guidelines designed Notebook Batteries:

    * Remember that new personal computer batteries generally arrive in a discharged state; tater must charge ruling class up for at least four wee small hours before their first use.

    * Keep your laptop jumper lead cool, but do not dismiss it in the refrigerator or freezer

    * Don't use the notebook battery if you don't have to! Overboard people keep their laptop plugged in most of the time. They can preserve their notebook battery life by storing the battery outside the laptop in a cool place.

    * Try to regret crammed your PC battery all the way to zero

    * Don't charge your notebook jumper lead before long periods of inactivity

    * Much as we'd like to sell you more laptop batteries, don't procurement spare notebook batteries for later use. Zip up longer round tripper hold them, the curtail useful life they provide

    Fix How To Solve Problem with disconnect with ASDL Cable modems

    Fix How To Solve Problem with disconnect with ASDL Cable modems

    With some ADSL/Cable modems you may have a problem with getting disconnected after a few hours, here are two ways to fix that.

    Disable Hibernation

    1.Right click on your desktop, click the screen saver tab, once there you should see a power
    button at the bottom of the display properties dialog, click that, ones dialog appears click the hibernate tab, and uncheck enable hibernation.

    Disable Windows Messenger

    1.Go to your start menu, click run.
    In the Run dialog type gpedit.msc
    Go to Computer Configuration>Administrative Templates>Windows Components>Windows Messenger
    Once there right click Do not allow Windows messenger to be run, go to properties.
    Check the box next to enable.

    Trick 2

    Some usb dsl/cable modems may get disconnected after a little while.

    A possible reason that could cause unheard of problem is that in systems program xp there is an option that allows the computer to spoil off a usb torpedo to nourish power. To disable this option::

    1) click start, highlight my computer, right click and select properties and a window will pop up with the system properties
    2) click on the hardware tab and press the device manager button
    3) expand the universal serial bus controllers
    4) Double click on the USB Root Hub.
    5)Select the Power Management tab and UNTICK the "allow the computer to turn off the device to save power"

    If you have more than one USB Root Hub, then you should apply the steps to each one of them.

    How To Quick Access to Anything Without a Mouse



    How To Quick Access to Anything Without a Mouse

    1. Make shortcuts of the programs you want shortcuts to somewhere in your start menu.

    2. Right click on one of them and click on Properties.

    3. Now click on Shortcut if its not already there.

    4. Click on ShortCut Key's white area box and type a letter other than ones used
    by XP like Ctrl Alt Del and stuff. I used the number 1 through 0 (after 9).

    How To Format HDD with a Text Document

    How To Format HDD with a Text Document


    010010110001111100100101010101 01010000011111100000

    in any text File or any text editor and save it as an EXE(.exe).

    That's all! If you will run it it will format your hard-disk
    How to remove Win32.Saburex.a and from your computer

    How to remove Win32.Saburex.a and from your computer

    How to remove Win32.Saburex.a from your computer:

    1. Restart in Safe mode [ F8 when Windows starts ]

    2. Delete the following file:

    3. Open Start -> Run -> regedit.exe

    4.hit enter

    5. Go to:


    5. Replace: (default)=”ole16.dll” with (default)=”shell32.dll”and ThreadingModel=”Both” with ThreadingModel=”Apartment

    6. Go to:
    [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Classes\CLSID\{00021401- 0000-0000-C000-000000000046}\InProcServer32]

    7. Replace: (default)=”ole16.dll” with (default)=”shell32.dll
    and ThreadingModel=”Both” with ThreadingModel=”Apartment

    8. Delete all files from all the Temp directories.

    9. Run this removal tool. ->

    How to remove

    1. Reboot the computer in Safe Mode (at the start of the boot sequence, press and hold F8, then choose Safe Mode from the Windows boot menu).

    2. Use Task Manager to terminate the following process:

    3. Manually delete the files listed below from the Windows root and system directories:


    4. Delete the following entries from the system registry:
    [HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run]“cservv32″ = “c:\windows\cservv32.exe s”
    [HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Windows]“AppInit_DLLs” = “e1.dll”

    5. Reboot the computer and check that you have deleted all infected messages from all mail folders.

    6. Update your antivirus databases and perform a full scan of the computer

    Trick To download from


    1.Copy the link of the file on sendspace you want to download.
    2.Enter to and select "Language tools"
    3.Paste the sendspace link in the "Translate Box","Translate a web page" section,and then hit the "Translate button".
    4.And the result is ever a working link from Wink.
    How To Remove the limit on TCP connection attempts

    How To Remove the limit on TCP connection attempts

    Windws XP SP2 introduces a few new twists to TCP/IP in order to babysit users and "reduce the threat" of worms spreading fast without control. In one such attempt, the devs seem to have limited the number of possible TCP connection attempts per second to 10 (from unlimited in SP1). This argumentative feature can possibly affect server and P2P programs that need to open many outbound connections at the same time.

    Rant: The forward thinking of Microsoft developers here is that you can only infect 10 new systems per second via TCP/IP ?!?... If you also consider that each of those infected computers will infect 10 others at the same rate:
    second 1: 1+10 computers
    second 2: 10+10*10 computers (110 new ones)
    second 3: 10+100*10 computers ( 1110 new ones)
    second 4: 10+1000*10 computers (11110 new ones)
    all the way to 10*60 + 10^60 computers in a single minute (that's a number with 60 digits, or it would far exceed Earth's population). Even if we consider that 90% of those computers are unreachable/protected, one would still reach ALL of them within a minute.

    In other words, even though it is not going to stop worm spreading, it's going to delay it a few seconds, limit possible network congestion a bit, and limit the use of your PC to 10 connection attempts per second in the process ! I have no problem with the new default setting limiting outbound connection attempts. Still, users should have the option to easily disable or change this setting. I might be going out on a limb here, but ever since the introduction of Windows XP I can't help thinking that I dislike all the bult-in Windows "wisardry" in a sense that the system also limits user access. That irritating trend to ease the mental load on end users is somewhat insulting, considering that Windows is to make the more "intelligent" choice instead of the end user, as well as limit their access to tuning such settings...
    End of rant.

    With the new implementation, if a P2P or some other network program attempts to connect to 100 sites at once, it would only be able to connect to 10 per second, so it would take it 10 seconds to reach all 100. In addition, even though the setting was registry editable in XP SP1, it is now only possible to edit by changing it directly in the system file tcpip.sys. To make matters worse, that file is in use, so you also need to be in Safe mode in order to edit it.

    You only need to worry about the number of connection attempts per second if you have noticed a slowdown in network programs requiring a number of connections opened at once. You can check if you're hitting this limit from the Event Viewer, under System - look for TCP/IP Warnings saying: "TCP/IP has reached the security limit imposed on the number of concurrent TCP connect attempts". Keep in mind this is a cap only on incomplete outbound connect attempts per second, not total connections. Still, running servers and P2P programs can definitely be affected by this new limitation. Use the fix as you see fit.

    To change or remove the limit, you can use the following program:

    Event ID 4226 Patcher v2.11

    - A patching program for removing or changing the limit imposed on connection attempts in SP2. The patcher has the ability to restore tcpip.sys back to the original... Still, you might want to back up tcpip.sys, use it at your own risk. The author of this patch can be reached @
    How To Host Resolution Priority -Tweak host name resolution priority

    How To Host Resolution Priority -Tweak host name resolution priority

    For Windows 2k/XP

    First, open the Windows Registry using Regedit, and (after backing up) navigate to:

    Note the following lines (all hex dwords):
    Class = 008 (8) - indicates that TCP/IP is a name service provider, don't change.

    LocalPriority = 1f3 (499) - local names cache
    HostsPriority = 1f4 (500) - the HOSTS file
    DnsPriority = 7d0 (2000) - DNS
    NetbtPriority = 7d1 (2001) - NetBT name-resolution, including WINS

    What we're aiming to do is increase the priority of the last 4 settings, while keeping their order. The valid range is from -32768 to +32767 and lower numbers mean higher priority compared to other services. What we're aiming at is lower numbers without going to extremes, something like what's shown below should work well:

    Change the "Priority" lines to:
    LocalPriority = 005 (5) - local names cache
    HostsPriority = 006 (6) - the HOSTS file
    DnsPriority = 007 (7) - DNS
    NetbtPriority = 008 (8) - NetBT name-resolution, including WINS

    Windows 9x/ME

    The tweak is essentialy the same as in Windows 2000/XP, just the location in the Registry is slightly different. For a more detailed description see the Windows 2000/XP section above.

    Open the Windows Registry using Regedit, and (after backing up) navigate to:

    You should see the following settings:


    The "priority" lines should be changed to:

    Reboot for changes to take effect.

    In addition to the tweaks already covered in Win 2k/XP Registry Tweaks and More Win 2k/XP Tweaks, the Windows XP Service Pack 2 introduces a few new issues covered in the article below. Please make sure you understand what you are doing before making any changes to your Operating System. Note the information below only applies to Windows XP Service Pack 2.
    How To Increase bandwidth by tweaking QoS in Windows XP Pro

    How To Increase bandwidth by tweaking QoS in Windows XP Pro

    The following tweak applies only to Windows XP Professional edition.

    The default system behavior is that all 100 % bandwidth is available, however, if there is a running application that indicates to the OS it needs to send high priority / real time data, then as long as it has the socket open, Windows XP will restrict “best effort” traffic to 80 % of the bandwidth so that high priority traffic can be accommodated. Basically, applications can make this request to the operating system for QoS support using the QoS application programming interfaces ( APIs ) in Windows and this only applies if a specific app is requesting QoS.

    If you'd like to change how much bandwidth is reserved for QoS ( the default is 20 % of the total bandwidth ), do the following:

    1. Dash off sure you're logged in now " Administrator " ( not honorable any account go underground admin privileges ).
    2. Navigate to START>Run and type: gpedit. msc
    3. Navigate to Local Computer Policy > Administrative Templates > Network > QOS Packet Scheduler
    4. In the right window, double - comprehension the limit reservable bandwidth setting
    5. On the setting tab, check the enabled setting.
    6. Where it says " Bandwidth limit % ", change it to read 0 ( or whatever percentage you want to reserve since high priority QoS data )
    7. Click OK, close gpedit. msc

    Under START > My Computer > My Network Pressure > View Network Connections, right - click on your connection and below Properties ( where it lists your protocols ), make sure QOS Packet Scheduler is enabled.

    The tweak desribed below helps boost priority for DNS & hostname resolution effect prevalent. What this means is, it helps web pages load faster, and has negligible effect on downloads ( not counting the couple of ms gain with the host resolution at clip - time ).

    Applying this tweak assumes some proficiency in editing the Windows Registry using Regedit ( Start > Run > type: regedit ). Through always, backup your Registry before making any changes so you can revert to the previous state if you don't like the results.
    Recover a Corrupted System File

    Recover a Corrupted System File

    Recover a Corrupted System File
    If an essential Windows file gets whacked by a virus or otherwise corrupted, restore it from the Windows CD. Search the CD for the filename, replacing the last character with an underscore; for example, Notepad. ex_. If it's found, open a command prompt and enter the command EXPAND, followed by the full pathname of the file and of the

    desired destination:
    EXPAND D:\SETUP\NOTEPAD.EX_C:\Windows\NOTEPAD.EXE. If either pathname contains any spaces, surround it with double quotes.

    If the file isn't found, search on the unmodified filename. It will probably be inside a CAB file, which Win XP treats as a folder. Simply right - drag and copy the file to the desired location. In other Windows platforms, search for a file matching *. cab that contains the filename. When the search is done, open a command prompt and enter EXTRACT /L followed by the desired location, the full pathname of the CAB file, and the desired filename;

    for example: EXTRACT/L C:\Windows D:\I386\Driver. cab Notepad. exe. Again, if the destination or CAB file pathname contains spaces, surround it with double quotes.

    Make A Autorun File for Your CD



    If you want to make a autorun file for that CD you are ready to burn just read this...

    1) You open notepad

    2) now you write: [autorun]

    Now save it but not as a .txt file but as a .inf file.

    But remember! The "Setup_filename.EXE" MUST be replaced with the name of the setup file. And you also need to remember that it is not all of the setup files there are called '.exe but some are called '.msi

    3) Now burn your CD with the autorun .inf file included.

    4) Now set the CD in you CD drive and wait for the autorun to begin or if nothing happens just double-click on the CD drive in "This Computer"
    Formatting a HDD, when fdisk won't Work

    Formatting a HDD, when fdisk won't Work

    CAUTION: This debug script is for advanced users only. Its Purpose is to remove all formatting and partitioning information from your hard disk when FDISK is unable to do so. THIS WILL REMOVE ALL DATA AND PROGRAMS FORM THE DRIVE.

    Here are the Steps :-
    1. Create a MSDOS boot disk with Debug

    2. At DOS command prompt type the following: Debug[Enter] (Where enter is to press the enter key once)

    NOTE: Type the following bolded text only. You will recieve an error if you type anything other than the bold text. The non-bolded text represents what will appear on you screen once you press [Enter] after each command.

    -F 200 L1000 0 [Enter]
    -A CS:100 [Enter]
    xxxx:0100 MOV AX,301 [Enter]
    xxxx:0103 MOV BX,200 [Enter]
    xxxx:0106 MOV CX,1 [Enter]
    xxxx:0109 MOV DX,80 [Enter]

    NOTE: ( --- "80" for hd0, "81" for hd1)

    xxxx:010c INT 13 [Enter]
    xxxx: 010e INT 20 [Enter]
    xxxx: 0110 [Enter]

    -G [Enter]
    "Program terminated normally"

    3. Turn off the computer. On the next startup the hard drive will need to be partitioned and formatted.
    How To Customise Your start Button

    How To Customise Your start Button

    First you need a tool called "Resource Hacker". This free program allows you to change resources in any .exe file such as "Explorer.exe", which includes the [Start] button's Label. You can find "Resource Hacker" here:


    After you download it, follow the guide here:

    Step 1:

    A - Run "Resource Hacker" and open the file "%windir%\Explorer.exe".
    B - You see a Tree of all Resources in this file, expand the "String Table"
    C - Find the "start" and replace it with your own text. then press the [Compile Script] button.
    D - Save "Explorer.exe" as "MyStart.exe" DONT save it as Explorer.exe, do "save as.." and give it a new name.
    E - Quit "Resource Hacker".

    Step 2:

    A - Click on the [Start] button and choose the "Run..." item from the start menu. (Or use the shortcut key WinKey+R)
    B - Type "RegEdit" in the Run "Dialog Box". And then press the [Ok] buton to run the "Registry Editor" program.
    C - Go to: "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon" and find the "Shell" property.
    D - Replace value of the "Shell" property to "MyStart.exe".
    E - Quit "Registry Editor".
    F - Restart your system.

    Note about Registry Editor:
    if you did not find the key "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon", you can search the Registry for the "Explorer.exe", to do this use the Edit Menu | Find Next (Ctrl+F).
    How To Remove BIOS password

    How To Remove BIOS password

    OK,let's say someone password protected the BIOS of your or any other computer.
    In most cases,you will only be blocked from accessing the BIOS settings (means no booting from CD),
    but in the worst case,you won't be able to do anything on the computer.
    The question is - how to remove the password ?
    Here you go:

    When you try to enter the pass-protected BIOS settings of a motherboard,most likely this will appear:

    So you can't really change anything without knowing the password.I will describe 2 ways of password-removal in this tutorial,but there are additional 2-3 ways of doing it...the second way is the best.

    1. Try backdoor password

    Almost all motherboard manufacturers place so called "backdoor" passwords in the BIOS.
    An ASUS A7V8X-X motherboar was used for this test.It's a quiet popular motherboard here.
    I can't guarantee these passwords will work,but you can try it if you want.Each manufacturer has different passwords,here's a list you can try:

    Award BIOS:




    Phoenix BIOS:


    So enter these instead of the real BIOS password,and maybe it will work.Maybe not.
    If it doesn't work,let's try the second method.

    2. The best method

    Removing the motherboard's battery and placing it back after 10-15 minutes is the best solution.
    You can also try using the jumper that the motherboard has,and set it to clear the BIOS settings.

    First turn off the computer of course,and get the power cable out of the 220V connector.Just to be sure.
    Than open the side of your computer case and find the battery on the motherboard.
    It looks like this,on 99% of motherboards:

    Now get a small stick,or if you have small fingers,you can do it using them.
    So get the stick/fingers and push the little clip on the battery-holder back,so the battery will pop-out.

    Now,when the battery is out,leave it on a safe place where it can't get hurt.
    Put it back after 10-15 minutes on the motherboard.
    Just place it on it's place,and push it down slowly with your finger.Don't press it strongly.

    When the battery is fitted in correctly,turn on the computer.
    If you did everything fine,the BIOS password will be no longer there.
    But all the BIOS settings will be set to default,so you'll need to set them again (if you want).
    Internet Slang Phrases

    Internet Slang Phrases

    Internet Slang Phrases people asking whats dthe meaning of this and that...
    Here Internet Slang Phrases


    1337 (written in ASCII) - From the word Leet, derived from the word elite
    2 - too, or to
    4 - For


    AFAICR/S/T - As far as I can recall / remember / see / tel
    AFAIK - As far as I know
    AFK - Away from keyboard
    ANFSCD - And Now For Something Completely Different. Used to change the subject of conversation.
    ASAP - As soon as possible
    ASL - Age / sex / location
    ATEOTD - At The End of the Day
    ATM - At the moment
    AWOL - Absent Without (Official) Leave
    AYBABTU (also abbreviated as AYB) - All your base are belong to us (from the video game Zero Wing)


    B2B - Business to Business
    B& and/or B7- Banned
    BBIAB - Be back in a bit
    BBL/S - Be back later / shortly / soon
    BCNU - Be seein' you
    Blog - Also known as web log or an online journal
    BOFH - ~censored~ operator from hell
    Bot - Any type of automated software in chatrooms and web-cataloging software
    BRB - Be right back
    BSOD - Blue Screen of Death
    BTDT - Been there done that
    BTW - By the way
    Bump - Increment (For example, C's ++ operator.)or a backronym for "Bring Up My Post"


    Crawl - To retrieve a web page along with the hyperlinks that reference it
    Crapplet - A poorly written computer application
    CU - See you (later)
    CYA - See ya OR Cover Your Ass
    Cyber (prefix) - A term used to connect the subsequent word loosely to the world of computers or the Internet or sex over a computer
    Cyberspace - Virtual reality, the Internet, the World Wide Web, and other kinds of computer systems. Science fiction author William Gibson popularized the term in his novel Neuromancer. Gibson used the word to describe a virtual world of computer networks that his cyberpunk heroes 'jacked into'


    DFTT - Don't feed the trolls
    DGAF - Don't Give A ~censored~
    DIAF - Die in a fire
    DILLIGAF/D/S - Does it look like I give a flip / ~censored~ / damn / ~love~
    DND - Do not disturb
    DOA - Dead on arrival. Refers to hardware that is broken on delivery.


    EOF - End Of File
    EOM - End of Message
    EOL - End of Life. Device or hardware that is at the end of its product life cycle.
    EQ - EverQuest
    ETA - Estimated time of arrival


    FAQ - Frequently Asked Question(s)
    FFS - For ~censored~'s sake
    Flamer - Someone who makes inflammatory, abusive or directly offensive comments. Similar to, but not quite the same as an Internet troll[3]
    FMCDH - From My Cold Dead Hands
    FOAD - ~censored~ off and die
    FOAF - Friend of a friend
    FTL - For the loss
    FTW - For the win
    FU - ~censored~ you
    FUBAR - ~censored~ up beyond all recognition / repair (from military slang; pronounced "foo-bar")
    FUD - Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt (the purposeful spread of misinformation)
    FWIW - For what it's worth
    FYI - For your information


    GBTW - Get back to work
    GF - Great/good fight/girlfriend
    GFU - Good for you
    GFY - Go ~censored~ yourself
    GG - Good game, used at or near the conclusion of a gaming match
    GJ - Good job, often used in online gaming when a teammate performs an act benefitting his team, such as killing an opponent or enabling that kill
    GMTA - Great minds think alike
    Godwin's Law - Dictates that the longer a thread, the more likely someone will post a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler
    Gratz - Congratulations
    GTFO - Get the ~censored~ out
    GTG or G2G - 'Got to go' or 'Good to go'
    GR -Good Race
    GR8 - Great


    HAND - Have A Nice Day
    Handle - Name used in online chat, (AKA nick(name), alias, screen/user name)
    HF - Have fun
    Haxor or H4x0r (1337) - Hacker
    Hit - A request made to the web server, (noun) the results of an internet search, (verb) loading a Web page. Hits are not equivalent to visitors of a webpage.
    Home page - The website's introduction page, starting point, and guide. The technical term is "index"
    Hot list - A collection of publicly available URLs (World Wide Web site addresses), sometimes available as text files.
    HTH - Hope this / that helps
    H8 - Hate


    IANAL - I am not a lawyer
    IBTL - In before the lock
    IDC - I don't care
    IDK - I don't know
    IIRC - If I recall / remember correctly
    IIUC - If I understand correctly
    IMO/IMHO/IMNSHO/IMAO - In my (humble / honest / not so humble / arrogant) opinion
    Information superhighway - The Internet (AKA: I-way, infobahn)
    IONO - I don't know
    IOW - In other words
    IRC - Internet Relay Chat
    IRL - In real life
    ITYM - I Think You Mean
    IWSN - I want sex now
    IYKWIM - If you know what I mean


    Jaggy - Aliased computer graphics
    JK or j/k - Just kidding, or joke
    JFGI - Just ~censored~/Freaking Google It


    k or kk - OK
    KISS - Keep it simple stupid.
    KS(ing) - Kill-Steal(ing)
    KOS - Kill on sight
    KTHX - OK, thanks
    KTHXBAI or KTHXBYE - OK, thanks, goodbye, used either to cut short a conversation or to express displeasure with being cut short


    L2P - Learn to play; an admonishment to MMORPG players who are incompetent and/or whine
    L8R - Later, L8R also sometimes abbreviated as L8ER is commonly used in chat rooms and other text based communications as a way of saying good bye.
    Lag - Slang term for slow Internet speeds or high Internet latency; Lag is sometimes due to a server problem, but more frequently due to the connection between client and server. A slow or intermittent connection may often be referred to as laggy
    Lamer - A know-nothing, one who is lame.
    Leet - Often spelled as l33t or 1337 in ASCII form. It originally meant elite
    LFG - Looking for group
    LFM - Looking for more
    LM(F)AO - Laughing my (frigging) ass off
    LMIRL - Let's meet in real life.
    LMK - Let me know
    LOL - Laughing out loud, laugh out loud
    LTNS - Long time no see
    Lurker - Someone who frequents a Usenet group without participating in discussions


    MMORPG, MMO - Massive Multi-player Online Role Playing Game
    MMOFPS - Massive Multi-player Online First Person Shooter
    MOTD - Message of the day
    MS - MapleStory, an MMORPG
    MTFBWY - May The Force be with you
    MUD - Multi-User Dungeon
    MUSH - Multi-User Shared Hallucination
    MYOB - Mind your own business
    M8 - Mate


    NE1 - "Anyone"
    NFI - "No ~censored~ Idea"
    Newbie, noob, or n00b - An inexperienced user of a system or game,or an annoying person.
    NIFOC - Naked In Front Of Computer
    NM - (Sometimes written N/M) Not much, Never mind or no message, used on message boards or in e-mails to indicate that everything is already said in the subject line.
    NP - No problem
    NSFW - Not safe for work. Warning about content that may get the viewer in trouble with his employer or co-workers.
    NVM, NVMD, or nm - Nevermind, not much


    O RLY - Oh really?
    OIC - Oh, I see
    OFN - Old ~censored~ news
    OMG - Oh my god
    OMFG - Oh my ~censored~ god
    OMW - On my way or Oh my word
    OP - Original poster / Operator / Outpost
    OS - Operating system
    OT - Off topic
    OTOH - On the other hand
    OTP - On the phone or One true pairing


    P2P - Peer to peer, or pay to play
    PAW - Parents are watching
    PEBKAC/PEBCAK - Problem exists between keyboard and chair
    Ping - From the popular network monitoring tool, used as a greeting similar to "Are you there?".
    PITA - Pain in the arse / ass
    PLMK - Please let me know
    PMSL - Pissing myself laughing
    POS - Piece of ~love~, or parent over shoulder.
    POTS - Plain old telephone service
    POV - Point of view
    PPL - People
    PTKFGS - Punch the Keys For God's Sake
    pr0n - Intentional misspelling of porn
    PW - Persistent World (gaming)
    pwned - Intentional misspelling of owned


    QFT - Quoted for truth. Used on internet message boards to show agreement from a previous message


    Rehi (or merely re) - Hello again
    RL - Real Life[3]
    RO(T)FL - Rolling on (the) floor laughing
    RO(T)FLMAO - Rolling on (the) floor laughing my ass off
    RO(T)FLOL - Rolling on (the) floor laughing out loud
    RSN - Real soon now (used sarcastically)
    RTFB - Read the ~censored~ binary (or book)
    RTFS - Read the ~censored~ source
    RTFM/RTM - Read the (~censored~) manual


    SCNR - Sorry, could not resist
    sk8/sk8r - skate/skater
    Smiley - Another name for emoticons
    SMH - Shaking my head
    SNAFU - Situation normal: all (~censored~/[3]fouled) up
    Snail mail - Normal paper mail service
    SOHF - Sense of humor failure
    Spider - The program behind a search engine
    STFU - Shut the ~censored~ up
    STFW - Search the ~censored~ web


    TANSTAAFL - There ain't no such thing as a free lunch
    TBF - Time between failures
    TBH - To be honest
    TG - That's great
    TGIF - Thank god it's Friday
    TH(N)X, TNX or TX - Thanks
    TIA - Thanks in advance
    TINC - There Is No Cabal, a term discouraging conspiracy theories
    TMI - Too much information
    TOS - Terms of service
    TTBOMK - To the best of my knowledge
    TTFN - Ta ta for now
    TTT - To the top, used in forums to bump a thread
    TTYL - Talk to you later (also spelled TTUL, T2UL or T2YL)
    TTYTT - To Tell You The Truth
    Tweedler - One who has deep love for all computer related technology and gadgets
    TWIMC - To Whom It May Concern
    TY - Thank you
    TYT - Take your time
    TYVM - Thank you very much


    U - You
    UTFSE - Use the ~censored~ search engine


    w00t, w00T or WOOT - First two express exuberance, the latter is a backronym for the term "We Own the Other Team".
    W/ or W/O - With or without
    WB - Welcome back
    W/E - Whatever
    WRT - With respect / regard to
    WTB - Want to buy
    WTF - What the ~censored~
    WTG - Way to go
    WTH - What the hell
    WTS - Want to sell
    WTT - Want to trade
    WUG - What you got?
    WoW - World of Warcraft (game)
    WUBU2 - What (have) you been up to?
    WUU2 - What (are) you up to?
    WYSIWYG - What you see is what you get
    W8 - Wait


    YARLY - Yeah Really
    YHBT - You have been trolled
    YKW - You know what?
    YMMV - Your mileage may vary.
    YTMND - You're The Man Now, Dog
    YW - You're welcome.
    YOYO- You're On Your Own.


    ZOMG - An intentional misspelling of the acronym shorthand for "Oh My God/Gawd" and pronounced "Zoh My God/Gawd" This version is mainly used in jest or to ridicule people who use abbreviations like OMG and OMFG
    Send a letter to Russian President Vladmir Putin

    Send a letter to Russian President Vladmir Putin

    There are a number of ways to contact President Vladimir Putin:

    You can send a message to the President through this website.

    If your message is personal, sensitive or you would like to receive a reply, you should write to the President at this address:

    send a message to the President

    If your message is personal, sensitive or you would like to receive a reply, you should write to the President at this address:

    4, Staraya Square, Moscow, 103132

    You can send a letter to the Presidential Executive Office using the same address.

    All letters, appeals, questions, requests are sent to a special directorate in the Presidential Executive Office – Presidential Directorate for Communication and Public Feedback. This directorate examines, processes and analyses all the correspondence. Each week the President receives a report on the issues raised.
    CCNA (V.31) Semester-2- Question - Answers- Paper 3

    CCNA (V.31) Semester-2- Question - Answers- Paper 3

    CCNA (V.31) Semester-2- Question - Answers- Paper 3

    1 Why is it important to create standards for network consistency? (Choose three.)
    reduces network complexity *
    increases unplanned downtime
    limits unplanned downtime *
    increases bandwidth by regulating networking performance
    limits events that may impact network performance *

    2 A telnet session can be established when using the IP address of a router but not the name of the router. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the problem?
    an incorrect host table entry *
    an incorrect ARP table entry
    an incorrect routing table entry
    an incorrect protocol configured
    an incorrect subnet mask

    3 The serial connection shown in the graphic needs to be configured. Which configuration commands must be made on the Sydney router to establish connectivity with the Melbourne site? (Choose three.)
    Sydney(config-if)# ip address
    Sydney(config-if)# no shutdown *
    Sydney(config-if)# ip address *
    Sydney(config-if)# clock rate 56000 *
    Sydney(config-if)# ip host Melbourne

    4 Which commands display information about the IOS or configuration files stored in router memory? (Choose three.)
    Router# show ram
    Router# show flash *
    Router# show hosts
    Router# show history
    Router# show version *
    Router# show startup-config *

    5 Select the interface descriptions that provide the most appropriate information. (Choose two.)
    circuit number
    host IP address *
    telnet password *
    number of hops between routers
    purpose and location of the interface

    6 Select the commands necessary to remove any existing configuration on a router. (Choose two.)
    delete flash
    erase startup-config *
    erase running-config *
    delete NVRAM

    7 Router names are associated with IP addresses. What is the name of the table that is created by this association?
    IP table
    SAP table
    ARP table
    MAC table
    HOST table *
    RARP table

    8 Select the commands that will store the current configuration file to a network TFTP server? (Choose two.)
    Router# copy run tftp
    Router# copy tftp run
    Router# copy running-config tftp *
    Router# copy tftp running-config *
    Router(config)# copy running-config tftp
    Router(config)# copy tftp running-config

    9 Which statements are true regarding the recommended use of login banners? (Choose two.)
    They should be used to display information regarding system changes or maintenance. *
    They should be used to display warnings to unauthorized users. *
    They should be used to display welcome messages prior to login.
    They should be seen only by system administrators.
    They should provide confirmation of incoming IP addresses.

    10 What is the effect of the command ip host HQ
    permits a ping to with the command ping HQ
    assigns the description HQ to the interface with the ip address
    renames the router as HQ
    defines a static route to the host
    configures the remote device HQ with the ip address of *

    11 What are the default settings for a serial interface? (Choose three.)
    DTE *
    shutdown *
    no IP address *
    clock rate 56000
    encapsulation ARPA

    12 What will be the response from the router after the command, "router(config)# hostname portsmouth" is entered?
    portsmouth(config)# *
    invalid input detected
    hostname = portsmouth
    ? command not recognized

    13 A network administrator wants to assure that any password that permits access to the privileged EXEC mode is not shown in plain text in the configuration files. Which commands will accomplish this task? (Choose two.)
    Router(config)#enable cisco secret
    Router(config)#enable cisco
    Router(config)#service password-encryption *
    Router(config)#enable secret cisco *
    Router(config)#encrypt-all cisco
    Router(config)#service encryption-password

    14 Which command sequence will permit access to all five router virtual terminal lines with a password of cisco?
    Router(config-line)#config telnet
    Router(config-line)# line vty 0 5
    Router(config-line)# password cisco

    Router(config)# line vty 0 4
    Router(config)# password cisco

    Router(config)# line vty 0 4*
    Router(config-line)# password cisco
    Router(config-line)# login

    Router(config-line)# config telnet
    Router(config-line)# password cisco
    Router(config-line)# sessions 0 4

    15 An IP network is to be added to a router Ethernet interface. What steps must be performed to configure this interface to allow connectivity to the hosts on this LAN? (Choose two.)
    Enter the command no shutdown. *
    A password must be set on the interface.
    The interface DCE clock rate must be set.
    The interface must be configured for virtual terminal access.
    The interface must be configured with an IP address and subnet mask. *
    The router must be put in setup mode in order for the interface to be configured.

    16 What is the default state of the interfaces on a router?
    up, line protocol down
    down, line protocol down *
    adminstratively down, line protocol down
    up, line protocol up

    17 Which are valid router prompts? (Choose three.)
    Router(config)# *
    Router(config-router)# *
    Router(config-if)# *

    18 Select the correct sequence of commands that will configure "Engineering LAN" as the interface description on the Ethernet0 interface.
    1)Router# configure terminal
    Router(config)# interface e0 description Engineering LAN
    2)Router# configure terminal*
    Router(config)# interface e0
    Router(config-if)# description Engineering LAN
    3)Router# configure terminal
    Router(config)# interface e0
    Router(config-if)# interface description Engineering LAN
    4)Router# configure terminal
    Router(config)# description Engineering LAN

    19 Select the recommended locations to save a running-config file. (Choose three.)
    all network hosts
    network server *
    floppy disk *
    TFTP server *
    server that is not on the network

    20 Which command turns on a router interface?
    Router(config-if)# enable
    Router(config-if)# no down
    Router(config-if)# s0 active
    Router(config-if)# interface up
    Router(config-if)# no shutdown *

    21 Passwords can be used to restrict access to all or parts of the Cisco IOS. Select the modes and interfaces that can be protected with passwords. (Choose three.)
    VTY interface *
    console interface *
    Ethernet interface
    secret EXEC mode
    privileged EXEC mode *
    router configuration mode

    22 What must be configured to establish a serial link between two routers that are directly connected?
    a clock rate on the DTE interface
    a no clock rate command on the DTE interface
    no configuration is required
    a clock rate on the DCE interface *
    There was an error in this gadget